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Formula SAE Rules 2021 Version 1.0GR - General RegulationsGR.1 Formula SAE Competition ObjectiveGR.1.1 Collegiate Design SeriesGR.1.2 Formula SAE ConceptGR.1.3 Engineering CompetitionGR.1.4 Vehicle Design ObjectivesGR.1.5 Good Engineering PracticesGR.1.6 Restriction on Vehicle UseGR.2 Formula SAE Rules and Organizer AuthorityGR.2.1 Rules AuthorityGR.2.2 Rules ValidityGR.2.3 Rules AlterationsGR.2.4 Rules ComplianceGR.2.5 Violations on IntentGR.2.6 Understanding the RulesGR.2.7 Participating in the CompetitionGR.2.8 Forfeit for Non AppearanceGR.2.9 Right to ImpoundGR.2.10 Problem ResolutionGR.2.11 General AuthorityGR.3 Rules of ConductGR.3.1 Unsportsmanlike ConductGR.3.2 Official InstructionsGR.3.3 Arguments with OfficialsGR.3.4 Alcohol and Illegal MaterialGR.3.5 Smoking – ProhibitedGR.4 Rules Format and UseGR.4.1 Definition of TermsGR.4.2 Capitalized TermsGR.4.3 HeadingsGR.4.4 ApplicabilityGR.4.5 Change IdentificationGR.5 Rules QuestionsGR.5.1 Question TypesGR.5.2 Question FormatGR.5.3 Question PublicationGR.6 ProtestsGR.6.1 Cause for ProtestGR.6.2 Preliminary Review – RequiredGR.6.3 Protest FormatGR.6.4 Protest Point BondGR.6.5 Protest PeriodGR.6.6 DecisionGR.7 Vehicle EligibilityGR.7.1 Student Developed VehicleGR.7.2 DefinitionsGR.7.3 Formula SAE Competition EligibilityAD - Administrative RegulationsAD.1 The Formula SAE SeriesAD.1.1 Rule VariationsAD.1.2 Official Announcements and Competition InformationAD.1.3 Official LanguagesAD.2 Official Information SourcesAD.2.1 Event WebsiteAD.2.2 FSAE Online WebsiteAD.2.3 ContactsAD.3 Individual Participation RequirementsAD.3.1 EligibilityAD.3.2 AgeAD.3.3 Driver’s LicenseAD.3.4 Society MembershipAD.3.5 Medical InsuranceAD.3.6 Disabled AccessibilityAD.4 Individual Registration RequirementsAD.4.1 Preliminary RegistrationAD.4.2 Onsite RegistrationAD.5 Team Advisors and OfficersAD.5.1 Faculty AdvisorAD.5.2 Electrical System Officer (EV Only)AD.5.3 Electric System Advisor (EV Only)AD.6 Competition RegistrationAD.6.1 General InformationAD.6.2 Registration DetailsAD.6.3 Registration FeesAD.6.4 WaitlistAD.6.5 WithdrawalsAD.7 Competition SiteAD.7.1 Personal VehiclesAD.7.2 Motorcycles, Bicycles, Rollerblades, etc. - ProhibitedAD.7.3 Self-propelled Pit Carts, Tool Boxes, etc. - ProhibitedAD.7.4 Trash CleanupDR - Document RequirementsDR.1 DocumentationDR.1.1 RequirementsDR.1.2 DefinitionsDR.2 Submission DetailsDR.2.1 Submission LocationDR.2.2 Submission Format RequirementsDR.3 Submission PenaltiesDR.3.2 Penalty DetailDR.3.3 Removal of Team EntryDR.3.4 Specific PenaltiesV - Vehicle RequirementsV.1 ConfigurationV.1.1 Open WheelV.1.2 WheelbaseV.1.3 Vehicle TrackV.1.4 Ground ClearanceV.2 DriverV.2.1 AccommodationV.2.2 VisibilityV.3 Suspension and SteeringV.3.1 SuspensionV.3.2 SteeringV.3.3 Steering WheelV.4 Wheels and TiresV.4.1 Wheel SizeV.4.2 Wheel AttachmentV.4.3 TiresF - Chassis and StructuralF.1 DefinitionsF.1.1 ChassisF.1.2 Frame MemberF.1.3 MonocoqueF.1.4 Main HoopF.1.5 Front HoopF.1.6 Roll Hoop(s)F.1.7 Roll Hoop Bracing SupportsF.1.8 Front BulkheadF.1.9 Impact AttenuatorF.1.10 Primary StructureF.1.11 Primary Structure EnvelopeF.1.12 Major StructureF.1.13 Rollover Protection EnvelopeF.1.14 Tire Surface EnvelopeF.1.15 Component EnvelopeF.1.16 Buckling Modulus (EI)F.1.17 TriangulationF.1.18 Nonflammable MaterialF.2 DocumentationF.2.1 Structural Equivalency Spreadsheet - SESF.2.2 Structural DocumentationF.2.3 EquivalenceF.2.4 FabricationF.3 Tubing and MaterialF.3.1 Dimensions and ToleranceF.3.2 Tubing RequirementsF.3.3 Non Structural TubingF.3.4 Steel Tubing and MaterialF.3.5 Alternative Tubing MaterialsF.4 Composite and Other MaterialsF.4.1 RequirementsF.4.2 Quasi-Isotropic LayupF.4.3 Laminate TestingF.4.4 Buckling Modulus – Equivalent Flat Panel CalculationF.5 Chassis RequirementsF.5.1 Primary StructureF.5.2 Bent Tubes or Multiple TubesF.5.3 Holes in TubingF.5.4 Fasteners in Primary StructureF.5.5 Roll HoopsF.5.6 Front HoopF.5.7 Main HoopF.5.8 Main Hoop BracingF.5.9 External ItemsF.5.10 Mechanically Attached Roll Hoop BracingF.5.11 Other Bracing RequirementsF.5.12 Other Side Tube RequirementsF.5.13 Component ProtectionF.6 Tube FramesF.6.1 Front BulkheadF.6.2 Front Bulkhead SupportF.6.3 Front Hoop BracingF.6.4 Side Impact StructureF.6.5 Shoulder Harness MountingF.6.6 Main Hoop Bracing SupportsF.7 MonocoqueF.7.1 General RequirementsF.7.2 Composite MonocoquesF.7.3 Front BulkheadF.7.4 Front Bulkhead SupportF.7.5 Front Hoop AttachmentF.7.6 Side Impact StructureF.7.7 Main Hoop AttachmentF.7.8 Roll Hoop Bracing AttachmentF.7.9 AttachmentsF.7.10 Driver Harness AttachmentF.8 Front Chassis ProtectionF.8.1 RequirementsF.8.2 Anti Intrusion Plate - AIPF.8.3 Composite Anti Intrusion PlateF.8.4 Impact Attenuator - IAF.8.5 Impact Attenuator AttachmentF.8.6 Non Crushable ObjectsF.8.7 Impact Attenuator Data - IADF.9 Fuel System (IC Only)F.9.1 LocationF.9.2 ProtectionF.10 Accumulator Container (EV Only)F.10.1 General RequirementsF.10.2 DesignF.10.3 AttachmentF.11 Tractive System (EV Only)F.11.1 LocationF.11.2 ProtectionT - Technical AspectsT.1 CockpitT.1.1 Cockpit OpeningT.1.2 Internal Cross SectionT.1.3 Driver ProtectionT.1.4 Controls AccessibilityT.1.5 Driver’s SeatT.1.6 Thermal ProtectionT.1.7 Floor CloseoutT.1.8 FirewallT.1.9 Tractive System Firewalls (EV Only)T.2 Driver AccommodationT.2.1 Harness DefinitionsT.2.2 Harness SpecificationT.2.3 Harness RequirementsT.2.4 Belt, Strap and Harness Installation - GeneralT.2.5 Lap Belt MountingT.2.6 Shoulder HarnessT.2.7 Anti-Submarine Belt MountingT.2.8 Head RestraintT.2.9 Roll Bar PaddingT.3 Brake SystemT.3.1 MechanicalT.3.2 Brake Over Travel Switch - BOTST.3.3 Brake LightT.4 Electronic Throttle ComponentsT.4.1 ApplicabilityT.4.2 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor - APPST.4.3 Brake System Encoder - BSET.5 PowertrainT.5.1 Transmission and DriveT.5.2 Drivetrain Shields and GuardsT.5.3 Motor Protection (EV Only )T.5.4 Coolant FluidT.5.5 System SealingT.5.6 Catch CansT.6 Pressurized SystemsT.6.1 Compressed Gas Cylinders and LinesT.6.2 High Pressure Hydraulic Pumps and LinesT.7 Bodywork and Aerodynamic DevicesT.7.1 Aerodynamic DevicesT.7.2 BodyworkT.7.3 MeasurementT.7.4 LengthT.7.5 WidthT.7.6 HeightT.8 FastenersT.8.1 Critical FastenersT.8.2 Critical Fastener RequirementsT.8.3 Positive Locking MechanismsT.8.4 Requirements for All FastenersT.9 Electrical EquipmentT.9.1 Low Voltage BatteriesVE - Vehicle and Driver EquipmentVE.1 Vehicle IdentificationVE.1.1 Vehicle NumberVE.1.2 School NameVE.1.3 SAE LogoVE.1.4 Inspection StickerVE.1.5 TransponderVE.2 Vehicle EquipmentVE.2.1 Jacking PointVE.2.2 Push BarVE.2.3 Fire ExtinguisherVE.2.4 Electrical Equipment (EV Only)VE.2.5 Camera MountsVE.3 Driver EquipmentVE.3.1 GeneralVE.3.2 HelmetVE.3.3 Driver GearIC - Internal Combustion Engine VehiclesIC.1 General RequirementsIC.1.1 Engine LimitationsIC.1.2 Air Intake and Fuel System LocationIC.2 Air Intake SystemIC.2.1 GeneralIC.2.2 Intake System LocationIC.2.3 Intake System MountingIC.2.4 Intake System RestrictorIC.2.5 Turbochargers & SuperchargersIC.2.6 Connections to IntakeIC.3 ThrottleIC.3.1 GeneralIC.3.2 Throttle Actuation MethodIC.3.3 Throttle Actuation – MechanicalIC.4 Electronic Throttle ControlIC.4.1 General DesignIC.4.2 Commercial ETC SystemIC.4.3 DocumentationIC.4.4 Throttle Position Sensor - TPSIC.4.5 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor - APPSIC.4.6 Brake System Encoder - BSEIC.4.7 Plausibility ChecksIC.4.8 Brake System Plausibility Device - BSPDIC.5 Fuel and Fuel SystemIC.5.1 FuelIC.5.2 Fuel SystemIC.5.3 Fuel TankIC.5.4 Fuel Filler Neck & Sight TubeIC.5.5 Fuel Tank FillingIC.5.6 Venting SystemsIC.5.7 Fuel LinesIC.6 Fuel InjectionIC.6.1 Low Pressure Injection (LPI)IC.6.2 High Pressure Injection (HPI) / Direct Injection (DI)IC.7 Exhaust and Noise ControlIC.7.1 Exhaust ProtectionIC.7.2 Exhaust OutletIC.7.3 Variable ExhaustIC.7.4 Connections to ExhaustIC.7.5 Noise Level and TestingIC.8 ElectricalIC.8.1 StarterIC.8.2 BatteriesIC.8.3 Voltage Limit for ICIC.8.4 Master SwitchesEV - Electric VehiclesEV.1 DefinitionsEV.1.1 High Voltage – HVEV.1.2 Low Voltage - LVEV.1.3 Tractive SystemEV.1.4 Grounded Low Voltage - GLVEV.1.5 AccumulatorEV.1.6 Normally OpenEV.2 DocumentationEV.2.1 Electrical System Form - ESFEV.2.2 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis - FMEAEV.2.3 Submission PenaltiesEV.3 Work PracticesEV.3.1 PersonnelEV.3.2 MaintenanceEV.3.3 LockoutEV.3.4 AccumulatorEV.4 Electrical LimitationsEV.4.1 Power and VoltageEV.4.2 Energy MeterEV.4.3 ViolationsEV.4.4 PenaltiesEV.5 ComponentsEV.5.1 MotorsEV.5.2 Motor ControllerEV.5.3 Accumulator ContainerEV.5.4 Grounded Low Voltage SystemEV.5.5 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor - APPSEV.5.6 Brake System Encoder - BSEEV.5.7 APPS / Brake Pedal Plausibility CheckEV.5.8 Tractive System Part PositioningEV.5.9 Housings and EnclosuresEV.5.10 Accumulator Hand CartEV.6 Energy StorageEV.6.1 AccumulatorEV.6.2 Electrical ConfigurationEV.6.3 Maintenance PlugsEV.6.4 Accumulator Isolation Relays - AIREV.6.5 High Voltage Disconnect - HVDEV.6.6 Precharge and Discharge CircuitsEV.6.7 Voltage IndicatorEV.6.8 Tractive System Measuring Points - TSMPEV.6.9 ConnectorsEV.7 Electrical SystemEV.7.1 CoversEV.7.2 InsulationEV.7.3 WiringEV.7.4 ConnectionsEV.7.5 Voltage SeparationEV.7.6 Overcurrent ProtectionEV.7.7 GroundingEV.8 Shutdown SystemEV.8.1 Shutdown CircuitEV.8.2 Shutdown Circuit OperationEV.8.3 Accumulator Management System - AMSEV.8.4 Accumulator VoltageEV.8.5 Accumulator TemperatureEV.8.6 Insulation Monitoring Device - IMDEV.8.7 Brake System Plausibility Device - BSPDEV.8.8 Inertia SwitchEV.8.9 InterlocksEV.8.10 Master SwitchesEV.8.11 Shutdown ButtonsEV.9 Tractive System OperationEV.9.1 ActivationEV.9.2 Tractive System Active Light - TSALEV.9.3 Ready to DriveEV.9.4 Ready to Drive SoundEV.10 ChargingEV.10.1 Charger RequirementsEV.10.2 Charger FeaturesEV.10.3 Charging Shutdown CircuitEV.10.4 Charging Shutdown Circuit OperationEV.10.5 Charging AreaIN - Technical InspectionIN.1 Inspection RequirementsIN.1.1 Inspection RequiredIN.1.2 MeasurementIN.1.3 Team ResponsibilityIN.1.4 Technical Inspection ProcedureIN.1.5 Technical Inspection AuthorityIN.1.6 Inspection ConditionIN.1.7 Visible AccessIN.1.8 Marked ItemsIN.1.9 CorrectionIN.1.10 ReinspectionIN.2 Inspection ProcessIN.3 Initial InspectionIN.4 Electrical Technical Inspection (EV Only)IN.4.1 Inspection ItemsIN.4.2 Accumulator InspectionIN.4.3 Accumulator AccessIN.4.4 Insulation Monitoring Device TestIN.4.5 Insulation Measurement TestIN.4.6 Ready to Drive SoundIN.4.7 Electrical Inspection CompletionIN.5 Driver Cockpit ChecksIN.5.1 Driver ClearanceIN.5.2 Egress TestIN.5.3 Driver Clearance and Egress Test CompletionIN.6 Driver Template InspectionsIN.6.1 ConductIN.6.2 Driver Template Clearance CriteriaIN.7 Cockpit Template InspectionsIN.7.1 ConductIN.7.2 Cockpit Template CriteriaIN.8 Mechanical Technical InspectionIN.8.1 Inspection ItemsIN.8.2 Aerodynamic Devices Stability and StrengthIN.8.3 Monocoque InspectionsIN.8.4 Engine Inspection (IC Only)IN.8.5 Mechanical Inspection CompletionIN.9 Tilt TestIN.9.1 Tilt Test RequirementsIN.9.2 Tilt Test CriteriaIN.9.3 Tilt Test CompletionIN.10 Noise and Switch Test (IC Only)IN.10.1 Sound Level MeasurementIN.10.2 Special ConfigurationsIN.10.3 Industrial EngineIN.10.4 Test SpeedsIN.10.5 Maximum Permitted Sound LevelIN.10.6 Noise Level RetestingIN.10.7 Switch FunctionIN.10.8 Noise Test CompletionIN.11 Rain Test (EV Only)IN.11.1 Rain Test RequirementsIN.11.2 Rain Test ConductIN.11.3 Rain Test CompletionIN.12 Brake TestIN.12.1 ObjectiveIN.12.2 Brake Test Conduct (IC Only)IN.12.3 Brake Test Conduct (EV Only)IN.13 Inspection ApprovalIN.13.1 Inspection ApprovalIN.13.2 Inspection StickerIN.13.3 Inspection ValidityIN.14 Modifications and RepairsIN.14.1 Prior to Inspection ApprovalIN.14.2 After Inspection ApprovalIN.14.3 Repairs or Changes After Inspection ApprovalIN.15 ReinspectionIN.15.1 RequirementIN.15.2 ConductIN.15.3 ResultS - Static EventsS.1 General StaticS.2 Presentation EventS.2.1 Presentation Event ObjectiveS.2.2 Presentation ConceptS.2.3 Presentation ScheduleS.2.4 Presentation SubmissionsS.2.5 Presentation FormatS.2.6 Presentation EquipmentS.2.7 Evaluation CriteriaS.2.8 Presentation Event ScoringS.3 Cost and Manufacturing EventS.3.1 Cost Event ObjectiveS.3.2 Cost Event SupplementS.3.3 Cost Event AreasS.3.4 Cost ReportS.3.5 Bill of Materials - BOMS.3.6 Late SubmissionS.3.7 Cost AddendumS.3.8 Cost TablesS.3.9 Make versus BuyS.3.10 Add Item RequestS.3.11 Public Cost ReportsS.3.12 Cost Report Penalties ProcessS.3.13 Event Day and DiscussionS.3.14 Cost AuditS.3.15 Cost ScenarioS.3.16 Cost Event ScoringS.4 Design EventS.4.1 Design Event ObjectiveS.4.2 Design DocumentsS.4.3 Design Report Content and FormatS.4.4 Spec Sheet Content and FormatS.4.5 Vehicle ConditionS.4.6 Support MaterialS.4.7 Judging SequenceS.4.8 Judging CriteriaS.4.9 Design Event ScoringD - Dynamic EventsD.1 General DynamicD.1.1 Dynamic Events and Maximum ScoresD.1.2 DefinitionsD.2 Pit and PaddockD.2.1 Vehicle MovementD.2.2 Fueling and ChargingD.2.3 Engine Running RequirementsD.3 DrivingD.3.1 Drivers Meetings – Attendance RequiredD.3.2 Dynamic Area LimitationsD.3.3 Driving Under PowerD.3.4 Driving Offsite - ProhibitedD.3.5 Driver EquipmentD.3.6 StartingD.3.7 Practice AreaD.3.8 Instructions from OfficialsD.3.9 Vehicle IntegrityD.3.10 Stalled & Disabled VehiclesD.4 FlagsD.4.1 Command FlagsD.4.2 Informational FlagsD.5 Weather ConditionsD.5.1 Operating AdjustmentsD.5.2 Operating ConditionsD.6 Tires and Tire ChangesD.6.1 Tire RequirementsD.6.2 Tire Changes during EnduranceD.7 Driver LimitationsD.7.1 Three Event LimitD.8 DefinitionsD.9 Acceleration EventD.9.1 Acceleration LayoutD.9.2 Acceleration ProcedureD.9.3 Acceleration PenaltiesD.9.4 Acceleration ScoringD.10 Skidpad EventD.10.1 Skidpad LayoutD.10.2 Skidpad ProcedureD.10.3 Skidpad PenaltiesD.10.4 Skidpad ScoringD.11 Autocross EventD.11.1 Autocross LayoutD.11.2 Autocross ProcedureD.11.3 Autocross PenaltiesD.11.4 Autocross ScoringD.12 Endurance EventD.12.1 Endurance General InformationD.12.2 Endurance LayoutD.12.3 Endurance Run OrderD.12.4 Endurance Vehicle Starting / RestartingD.12.5 Endurance Event ProcedureD.12.6 Endurance Run ProcedureD.12.7 Driver Change LimitationsD.12.8 Driver Change ProcedureD.12.9 Breakdowns & StallsD.12.10 Endurance Event – Black FlagsD.12.11 Endurance Event – PassingD.12.12 Endurance PenaltiesD.12.13 Endurance ScoringD.13 Efficiency EventD.13.1 Efficiency General InformationD.13.2 Efficiency ProcedureD.13.3 Efficiency EligibilityD.13.4 Efficiency Alternate Scoring (EV Only)D.13.5 Efficiency ScoringD.14 Post EnduranceUntitledD.14.1 Technical Inspection RequiredD.14.2 Post Endurance PenaltiesD.14.3 Post Endurance Penalty Guidelines